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Saturday, January 13, 2024

ART101_31_Art History I_2023_24_TERM4, Unit 1 DB: The Changing Definition of Art

  1. ART101_31_Art History I_2023_24_TERM4
  2. Unit 1 DB: The Changing Definition of Art


Jackie Phillips 

Forum: Unit 1 DB: The Changing Definition of Art

Can you elaborate to expand your response to include specific information that you found in this week's readings about prehistoric Europe, Ancient Mesopotamia, and Persia?

What I really enjoyed about the artwork is how much they included animals in the artwork, almost as equals in their daily life. They weren't just hunting and killing them and seeing them as food. They were escalating them to beings to be respected and accepted as a necessary part of life. Animals were needed as part of life for far beyond just killing them for food. They were part of statutes and at doors and gates and made obvious. I also liked that there were bodies of both humans and animal combined, which shows how much they felt that animals were such a high part of their being that they wanted to be part human and part animal. I feel like that a lot when seeing an animal. I would love to be part dog and part human sometimes since I have such a high respect for dogs and all they offer as social beings. Animals are shown as friends and companions, which is what they should be. They shouldn't be hunted for food and then thrown to the side as trash. 

Monday, November 20, 2023

Dog Fighting as a Criminal Act: Prevention and Acceptance as a Serious Crime Against Animals

 Dog Fighting as a Criminal Act 

Prevention and Acceptance as a Serious Crime Against Animals 



Jackie Phillips

Criminology, Post University

CRJ404 – Theoretical Criminology

CRJ404 Unit 5 Assignment: Course Project, Part 4

Dr. Lyndon Godsall

Due Date: 11:59 pm EST Sunday of Unit 5


Thesis statement 

Do dogs deserve fair treatment as living beings and should human beings work very hard to end the evil and dangerous sport of dog fighting so that no more dogs are forced to face a horrible existence and untimely death in a pool of blood? Should human beings who participate in this blood sport at all levels face severe sentences, including extensive prison time? Of course! Just because animals are considered property and objects by law in a lot of places, doesn’t accurately give them the respect they deserve as living, breathing and feeling sentient beings just like all human beings and other animals. By strengthening and upholding existing dog fighting laws and creating new laws that give dogs the respect they deserve as feeling beings, the seriousness of dog fighting would be raised far about its current level. 


Discuss the theory’s purpose and main idea. 

Theory #2  

The amount of suffering and pain, both physical and emotional, that these poor dogs endure during their short lives as fighters has been found by animal welfare groups to be on the far extreme. Animal Rights groups have stepped in and to say that these defenseless animals don’t deserve this torture. Plus, it has been discovered that dogs are forced to train with chains and lack of food and water. Dogs suffer their entire lives from these fights and are often euthanized. Stolen pets are found when used as bait to train the dogs. They are also kept in inhumane conditions before and after the fights. There needs to be victim rights for these poor dogs who have no choice but to participate and suffer great amounts and die horrible deaths. 

Address the origin of the theory 

“The animals used in dog fights are exposed to both physical and psychological harm. The types of damage inflicted can include abuse during breeding, or by performing tail and ear docking to prevent their opponents from hanging on to these zones during fights and to generate a more aggressive body language. Sharpening the teeth with a file, starvation, beatings, torture, and social isolation are also used to generate aggressive behaviors. 

Another implication of dogfighting training on their welfare includes the administration of anabolic steroids (e.g., testosterone propionate) to promote muscle mass growth and strengthening. Owners may use illegal narcotics (e.g., ephedrine, cocaine, and methamphetamine) or substances, such as gunpowder and hot sauce, to increase the aggression of animals and reduce the perception of pain during the fight. These drugs are used without medical supervision, ignoring the serious cardiovascular consequences this may arise. 

The use of shock or prong collars, hanging the dogs, and severe corrections with choke chains are usual practices during the training of dogs. Likewise, pulling weights and being starved and burned with lit cigarettes, or beaten with several objects to increase their strength and aggressivity are also elements that may cause injuries, tendon and ligament ruptures, persistent muscular pain, and emotional discomfort that affects the welfare of dogs. Indicators of negative mental states in dogs include spinning and circling, repeated bounding and rebounding, excessive licking with the formation of granulomas, excessive chewing of objects, and digging 

Veterinary treatment performed by amateurs is another welfare cost, since physical lesions, such as puncture wounds, lacerations, blood loss, dehydration, shock, and bone fractures may become infected and deteriorate the overall health of the animal. Finally, dogs that have been retired from fighting are often simply killed by being shot or hanged.(Padalino, B., 2022) 



Cite the relevance of the theory in criminology from the Unit 2 Outline. 

What happened to Michael Vick’s Dogs? 

After the ASPCA-led evaluations, the dogs were put into one of four categories: euthanize; sanctuary 2 (needs lifetime care given by trained professionals, with little chance for adoption); sanctuary 1 (needs a controlled environment, with a greater possibility of adoption); and foster (must live with experienced dog owners for a minimum of six months, and after further evaluation adoption is likely). Rebecca Huss, a professor at the Valparaiso (Ind.) University School of Law and an animal-law expert, was placed in charge of the dispersal. 

In the end, 47 of the 51 Vick dogs were saved. (Two died while in the shelters; one was destroyed because it was too violent; and another was euthanized for medical reasons.) Twenty-two dogs went to Best Friends, where McMillan and his staff chart their emotional state daily; almost all show steady improvement in categories such as calmness, sociability and happiness. McMillan believes 17 of the dogs will eventually be adopted, and applicants are being screened for the first of those. The other 25 have been spread around the country; the biggest group, 10, went to California with BAD RAP. Fourteen of the 25 have been placed in permanent homes, and the rest are in foster care.(SI Staff, 2008) 


Apply the theory to the criminal act from the Unit 2 Outline. 

“Dogs that will be trained to fight may be bred, bought, or stolen. From the outset, they lack basic care or are subjected to abuse. For much of their life they may be chained or caged, only having contact with humans or other animals when they are let out for training or taken to a fight. Moreover, they are generally fed inadequately, are not allowed free access to water, and may not have shelter. Part of the training to make them aggressive fighters involves forcing them to confront wild animals, cats, rabbits, stray dogs, or dogs that breeders steal to use as prey during training.” (Padalino, B., 2022)  



Padalino, B., 2022, National Center for Biotechnology Information, “The Welfare of Fighting Dogs: Wounds, Neurobiology of Pain, Legal Aspects and the Potential Role of the Veterinary Profession.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9454875/ 

SI Staff, 2008, Sports Illustrated, “What Happened to Michael Vick’s Dogs,” https://www.si.com/more-sports/2008/12/23/vick-dogs